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Dendera Temple


Dendera Temple complex, located about 2.5 km south-east of Dendera, Egypt. It is one of the best-preserved temple complexes in Egypt. The area was used as the sixth Nome of Upper Egypt, south of Abydos.The beautiful ancient temple at Dendera really stands out for its excellent state of preservation. Dating back to the first century BC, this fascinating ancient temple is part of a wider complex of temples, tombs and even a Christian chapel. Many tourists visit Dendera on a day trip from Luxor and this makes it both a popular and practical place to explore, ensuring it remains among the top visitor attractions in Egypt.
The most prominent site in the Dendera complex is the Ptolemaic-era Temple of Hathor. Dating back to the first century BC, Dendera’s Temple of Hathor was continually developed throughout the Ptolemaic and Roman eras and contains references to both Egyptian rulers and Roman Emperors – including Nero, Domitian & Trajan.
However, although the Temple of Hathor is a relatively late construction by Ancient Egyptian standards, the Dendera complex as a whole dates back much further and the current temple was built upon the remains of older strutures.
As well as the Temple of Hathor, other notable areas at Dendera include both Egyptian- and Roman-era birth houses, a chapel dedicated to the Egyptian deity Isis, the gateways of Domitian and Trajan and a late-Roman Empire period Christian basilica.
Along with the temple itself, there is also a necropolis that includes tombs of the Early Dynastic Period, but the most important phase that has been identified was the end of the Old Kingdom and the 1st Intermediate Period. The provinces were virtually autonomous at that time and, although Dendera was not a leading political force in Upper Egypt, its notables built a number of mastabas of some size, though only one has any decoration apart from stelae and false doors. On the west end of the site are brick-vaulted catacombs of Late Period animal burials, primarily birds and dogs, while cow burials have been found at various points in the necropolis. Of course, this was a significant site for the Hathor cult, whose forms included a cow.
The main temple complex is oriented, as usual, toward the Nile, which here flows east-west, so that the temple faces north. However, to the ancient Egyptians, this was symbolically east, since the temple faces the Nile.
The main temple area is fronted by several Roman Period kiosks. After those, the monumental gateway of Domitian and Trajan is set in a massive mud-brick enclosure wall that surrounded the complex, and leads to an open area. Although the site lacks a colonnade and the two pylons which ought to precede the inner temple, an unfinished inner enclosure wall of stone surrounds a courtyard with side entrances which open before the large hypostyle hall added in the 1st century AD by the emperor Tiberius.
The new sanctuary was well designed and followed Ptolemaic models. In order to match the level of the Hathor temple, the new building was erected on a high platform. A temporary access staircase led up at the side of the platform. The roofing slabs were not positioned, as usual, beneath the level of the cavetto molding around the buildings top, but would have probably been hidden by a parapet wall. The core building contains a sequence of three rooms. Two corridors that isolate the large sanctuary are notable. These passages are too narrow to be used and must have been added for symbolic and optical effect. The rear wall of the sanctuary is dominated by an enormous false door that is framed by a double cavetto molding on slender columns and topped by an uraeus frieze. A cult niche high up in the wall corresponds to the location of the statue niche in the sanctuary of the main temple.
The temple plan is classical Egyptian, completely enclosed by a 35 by 59 meter wall standing 12.5 meters high. However, unlike those of earlier temples, the facade of the hypostyle hall that fronts the main temple is constructed as a low screen with inter-columnar walls exposing the hall's ceiling and the Hathor style sistrum capitals of its 24 columns. According to a dedication inscription on the cornice thickness above the entrance, this part of the temple was built under Tiberius between 34 and 35 AD. The structure measures 26.03 by 43 meters and is 17.2 meters high. It has an 8 meter long architrave that spans the central intercolumniation. Above, a towering cavetto, built from one course, and the massive volume of the corner tori cast heavy shadows and articulate the edges of the facade.
East of the temple was a part of the town, which the temple texts mention as having a temple of Horus of Edfu in its midst. This may be the same as some remains of the Roman Period about 500 meters from the main enclosure. The triads of deities worshiped at Edfu and at Dendera were similar, consisting of Horus, Hathor (or Isis), and Ihy or Harsomtus. Hathor of Dendera and Horus of Edfu met at a sacred "marriage" ceremony, when she made a progress to the south.
Many tourists will visit Dendera on a day trip from Luxor and, given that a number of tour companies offer this option from many Luxor hotels, this can be the most practical way to explore the Dendera complex and Temple of Hathor. 

The Egyptian Museum


The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities is considerd to be one of the oldest, most famous, and largest museums in the world. With so many exhibits put on display in the Egyptian museum, and even double the number of exhibits kept in storage rooms, the guests would take days to view everything in the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities. The Egyptian Museum of Antiquties has a long history that dates back to the year 1825 when Mohamed Ali Pasha, the ruler of Egypt at the time, issued a decree to establish a museum for the antiquities of Egypt and the first location of the museum was in front of the Azabakeya Lake, between the squares of Opera and Atabba today.
The Ruler of Egypt at this period didn’t really realize the real value of the antiquities and ancient historical finds of Egypt and they started giving them to the European tourists who visited Egypt at this period of time in the middle of the 19th century.
At the end, the rest of the antiquities that were kept near the Azabakeya Lake were taken to an abandoned room in the citadel. When the Austrian Archduke, Maximilian, visited the citadel and was fond of the belongings of this room.
Situated in front of the main entrance of the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities, there is a small artificial lake that has some of the lotus and the papyrus plants, the most important plants for the ancient Egyptians.
The Egyptian Museum of Antiquties consists o two floors; the ground floor that hosts the heavier displays like coffins, huge statues, and stone carvings.
The displays of this floor were organized according to the historical periods which are the Old Kingdom, the Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom, the Late Period, the Greco Roman Period, and the antiquities of the Nubia.
The upper floor of the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities hosts the lighter displays that include gadgets and tools, funerary objects, smaller statues, papyrus papers, wooden coffins, jewelry, and most importantly, the displays of the Tut Ankh Amun tomb. Among the most important displays that the guests of the Egyptian Museum should view during their visit is the Narmer Plate or the Plate of the King Menes.The Narmer Plate is a large plate made out stone and it is the only remaining evidence that King Narmer or Menes was able to unify the two regions of Egypt, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt in one unified kingdom, beginning the dynastic era of the Egyptian history.
Old Kingdom Display
The displays of the Old Kingdom in the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities are located to the left hand side of the entrance door and they are among the most remarkable among the whole displays of the museum.
The Old Kingdom, or the Pyramids builders period, is a section of the ancient Egyptian history that starts with dfdgd and ends with sdfretet. The most important ahcievments of this period is the Pyramids of Giza, the step Pyramid of Saqqara, the Pyramids of Dahshur, and the Pyramids of Abu Sir.
The Egyptian Museum of Antiquities hosts ten notable statues that date back to the Middle Kingdom. The ten statues portray the king Senosert I, a king that belongs to the 12th dynasty and they are all made out of limestone.
There are also three other statues of Senosert portrayed as a the god Osiris and they were found near the El Lisht, an area near El Fayoum and the Pyramid of Meidum  to the South of Cairo.
Middle Kingdom Display
The Middle Kingdom period started in Egypt with the fall of the Old Kingdom and it was, according to historical records and researches, a relatively negative period of the ancient Egyptian history.
New Kingdom Display
The 18th dynasty which is the first dynasty of the New Kingdom is considered among the greatest dynasties that ruled over Egypt and the most important rulers of this period are Queen Hatshepsut, King Amenhotep, Ikhnaton, and King Tut Ankh Amun. The 18th dynasty which is the first dynasty of the New Kingdom is considered among the greatest dynasties that ruled over Egypt and the most important rulers of this period are Queen Hatshepsut, King Amenhotep, Ikhnaton, and King Tut Ankh Amun. 

The Temple Of Luxor


The temple of Luxor is close to the Nile and parallel with the riverbank. King Amenhotep III who reigned 1390-53 BC built this beautiful temple and dedicated it to Amon-Re, king of the gods, his consort Mut, and their son Khons.
This temple has been in almost continuos use as a place of worship right up to the present day. It was completed by Tutankhamun and Horemheb and added to by Ramses II. Towards the rear is a granite shrine dedicated to Alexander the Great. 
During the Christian era the temple's hypostyle hall was converted into a Christian church, and the remains of another Coptic church can be seen to the west. 
Then for thousands of years, the temple was buried beneath the streets and houses of the town of Luxor. Eventually the mosque of Sufi Shaykh Yusuf Abu al-Hajjaj was built over it. This mosque was preserved when the temple was uncovered and forms an integral part of the site today. 
Many festivals were celebrated in Thebes. The Temple of Luxor was the center of the most important one, the festival of Opet. Built largely by Amenhotep III and Ramesses II, it appears that the temple's purpose was for a suitable setting for the rituals of the festival. The festival itself was to reconcile the human aspect of the ruler with the divine office.t has been determined that the Luxor temple holds great significance to the Opet festival. The Luxor Temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad of the cult of the Royal Ka, Amun, Mut, and Khonsu and was built during the New Kingdom, the focus of the annual Opet Festival, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple (ipet-isut) to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility – whence its name. However, other studies at the temple by the Epigraphic Survey team present a completely new interpretation of Luxor and its great annual festival (the Feast of Opet).
Luxor, Egypt

The Temple Of Karnak


The temple of Karnak was known as Ipet-isut (Most select of places) by the ancient Egyptians. It is a city of temples built over 2000 years and dedicated to the Theben triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu. 
This derelict place is still capable of overshadowing many of the wonders of the modern world and in its day must have been awe inspiring. 
For the largely uneducated ancient Egyptian population this could only have been the place of the gods. It is the mother of all religious buildings, the largest ever made and a place of pilgrimage for nearly 4,000 years. Although todays pilgrims are mainly tourists. It covers about 200 acres 1.5km by 0.8km The area of the sacred enclosure of Amon alone is 61 acres and would hold ten average European cathedrals.The great temple at the heart of Karnak is so big, St Peter's, Milan and Notre Dame Cathedrals could be lost within its walls. The Hypostyle hall at 54,000 square feet with its 134 columns is still the largest room of any religious building in the world. In addition to the main sanctuary there are several smaller temples and a vast sacred lake.
All Egyptian temples had a sacred lake, Karnak's is the largest. It was used during festivals when images of the gods would sail across it on golden barges. Karnak was also the home of a flock of geese dedicated to Amun. 
The Eastern Gateway which once lead to a huge temple built by Akhenaten (the heretic king). In an attempt to obliterate his memory, Akenaten's enemies destroyed this shrine after his death. 
The Karnak Temples are open from 6:30 am until 5:30 pm in winter and from 6 am to 6 pm during summer. Admission is LE 65 for foreigners, LE 35 for foreign students. Visiting the open-air museum, to the left of the second pylon, costs an extra LE 10. The museum contains a collection of statuary that was found throughout the temple complex. The ticket has to be purchased at the main Karnak ticket kiosk. Karnak takes at least a half of a day just to walk around its many precincts and years to come to know it well. There is also a Sound and Light Show at Karnak. The show starts with a historical introduction covering the birth of the great city of Thebes and erection of the Karnak temple. The show also narrates the glorious achievements of some great Pharaohs. The Spectators listen to a magnificent and poetic description of the artistic treasures and great legacy which the Karnak temple encloses.



Dahab has a long history of luring travellers – and trapping them for days or weeks on end – with its cheap ocean-side camps, golden beaches and rugged mountain backdrop. In recent years Dahab has expanded beyond its humble origins, and now boasts a smooth fusion of hippie mellowness and resort chic. The banana pancakes, moonlight spliffs and hardcore backpackers still remain, though they now coexist with upscale restaurants, boutique hotels and holidaying European families. However, while the vast majority of Sinai is being packaged and sold for mainstream consumption, Dahab is a place where individual travellers are still the rule rather than the exception.Dahab means 'gold' in Arabic. In Sinai it means golden sands, turquoise sea and off-beat cafe life. It is a focus of tourism development, with swaying palms, fine sand and wonderful snorkeling opportunities. Dahab has excellent hotel accommodations, but also affords less expensive housing in the village, or camping. About 5 miles from town is the famous Blue Hole, for diving.
In and around Dahab there are plenty of reefs so wearing shoes or going kitesurfing with a local kitesurfer that knows the spot is recommended.
In the summer month from June/July till August/September you can expect up to 100% wind days over the month. Board short and rush west or a Shorty are way enough, because the temperature of the water is really warm (up to 28 degree) und the wind blows nonstop with 20-25 or more knots.
Dahab remains one of the more authentic tourist towns in Egypt. True, a paved boardwalk now lines the beachfront area of Assalah, and the hard sell for pricey dinners by pushy restaurateurs can test your nerves. However, Dahab remains a tranquil ocean-side refuge from the unrelenting heat of the desert. Be forewarned – after a few days of crystal-clear diving, desert trekking, ocean-side dinners and countless sheesha sessions.

Cairo Citadel


Explore amazing medieval architecture at The Cairo Citadel. Learn why you should consider adding the Citadel of Cairo to your travel itinerary.The Citadel, also known as the Saladin Citadel of Cairo, is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Cairo and throughout all of Egypt. Cairo is the capital of Egypt and also the 13th largest city in the world. About 16 million people live in the city and enjoy it not only for its thriving modern society but also for its historical significance. 
The Citadel is part of the Muqattam Hill near the center of the city. It was once renowned for its breezes and beautiful scenery, as far back as Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din, who built it and then fortified it against attack. The estimated construction date is between 1176 and 1183.
You may notice that the Cairo Citadel is also referred to as the Mohamed Ali Citadel because inside, it holds the actual Mosque of Muhammad Ali Pasha, built in the 19th century. The mosque was constructed in honor and in memory of Muhammad Ali's oldest son who died young. There are two other mosques to see at the Cairo Citadel: the Hypostyle Mosque of al-Nasir Muhammad and the Mosque of Suleyman Pasha. 
Other sights to see include Al-Gawhara Palace, the National Military Museum and the Police Museum. There are also music events that are held in various areas of the citadel.
The Citadel of Cairo has been called a grand castle and still contains many artifacts and surviving properties of ancient civilization. For example, water pipes that used to carry the water from the Nile River to the citadel can still be seen. 
The scenery is definitely the best feature of the Citadel. Some tourists have remarked that it’s as if nothing has changed in the Saladin Citadel for century. There are still medieval decorations, wooden bay windows and decorative arches. Many tourists have commented that the view from the terraces is the most exciting and inspiring aspect of the experience.
In addition to the scenery, remember that there are also several museums to enjoy as well as historical buildings, mosques and other “ancient” style amenities. Experienced tourists suggest that you wander around at your own pace and preferably away from the crowds, as there are a lot of people coming in and out. 
The Citadel is not only one of Cairo’s top attractions but also one of the most iconic images in the world. Come experience the beauty of the Saladin Citadel of Cairo!
Cairo, Egypt

Abu Simbel


Abu Simbel is perhaps the most recognized monument of ancient Egypt. The two temples built for the pharaoh Ramesses II have been attracting visitors since Victorian times. Almost as impressive as the monument itself is the story of its restoration in the 1960's. The temples had to be dismantled and physically moved 60 meters up a cliff where they were reassembled in the exact same relation to each other and the sun. Egyptian Government secured the support of UNESCO and launched a world wide appeal. During the salvage operation which began in 1964 and continued until 1968, the two temples were dismantled and raised over 60 meters up the sandstone cliff where they had been built more than 3,000 years before. Here they were reassembled, in the exact same relationship to each other and the sun, and covered with an artificial mountain. Most of the joins in the stone have now been filled by antiquity experts, but inside the temples it is still possible to see where the blocks were cut. 
A daily sound and light show is a highlight not to be missed. If you can make it you should also see the Abu Simbel Festival which takes place twice a year in February and October. Natural sunlight and architectural brilliance combine to make the inner sanctum of the temple light up. It's a breathtaking sight and makes the music, dance and food that accompanies the festival pale in comparison.
Abu Simbel lies near the Egyptian border with Sudan. The closest major town is Aswan. You can get to Abu Simbel by plane from either Cairo or Aswan. There are also daily buses and tours from Aswan to Abu Simbel. Perhaps the best way to visit Abu Simbel is by boat. There are plenty of cruises starting in Aswan that range from 3 - 5 days.

Pyramids Of Giza


The Pyramids of Giza represent one of the greatest architectural feats by man. Also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.The Great Pyramid stands 137 meters (449 feet) high. Each side is oriented with one of the cardinal directions of the compass (north, south, east, and west). The Great Pyramid of Khufu is made up of two million blocks of stone, and is estimated to weigh 5.9 million tonnes. Being one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, it is the only one still standing to this day! When gazing at this colossal structure, there’s no way to escape the feeling of being dwarfed.
The Pyramid of Khafre (Chephren) is situated to the southwest of the Pyramid of Khufu. Although it appears to be taller than the Great Pyramid, as it stands on higher ground, this pyramid is actually smaller than that of Khufu. This pyramid was built by Khufu's son Khafre. 
The third pyramid, the Pyramid of Menkaure (Mycerinus), which stands some 67m (220ft) high, was started by Khafre's son Menkaure. 
In front of the Great Pyramid stands the Sphinx, a statue of a creature with the body of a lion and the head of a man. The Sphinx, which stands 20 meters (66 feet) high, and measuring about 73.5 meters long, was probably carved over 4500 years ago out of sandstone. The Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million limestone blocks with most believed to have been transported from nearby quarries. The Tura limestone used for the casing was quarried across the river. The largest granite stones in the pyramid, found in the "King's" chamber, weigh 25 to 80 tonnes and were transported from Aswan, more than 500 miles away. Traditionally, ancient Egyptians cut stone blocks by hammering wooden wedges into the stone which were then soaked with water. As the water was absorbed, the wedges expanded, causing the rock to crack. Once they were cut, they were carried by boat either up or down the Nile River to the pyramid.
Giza is probably the most famous and most visited entry on our top ten tourist attractions of Egypt list, so while you won’t get any peace and quiet you will have an amazing experience and will see a site which can’t be beaten. 

Kharga Oasis


El-Kharga, also known as Al-Kharijah,  is the southernmost of Egypt's five western oases. It is located in the Libyan Desert, about 200 km to the west of the Nile valley, and is some 150 km long. It is located in and is the capital of El Wadi el Gedid governorate.  This oasis, which was known as the 'Southern Oasis' to the Ancient Egyptians is the largest of the oases in the Libyan desert of Egypt and "consists of a depression about 160km long and from 20km to 80km wide." Kharga is the most modernized of Egypt's western oases. The main town is a highly functional town with all modern facilities, and virtually nothing left of old architecture. Although framed by the oasis, there is no oasis feeling to it; unlike all other oases in this part of Egypt. A regular bus service connects the oasis to the other Western oases and to the rest of Egypt. A railway line Kharga - Qena (Nile Valley) - Port Safaga (Red Sea) has been in service since 1996. Darb el-Arbain caravan route 
The Darb el-Arbain trade route, passing through Kharga in the south and Asyut in the north, was a long caravan route running north-south between Middle Egypt and the Sudan. It was used from as early as theOld Kingdom of Egypt for the transport and trade of gold, ivory, spices, wheat, animals and plants. The maximum extent of the Darb el-Arbain was northward from Kobbei, 25 miles north of al-Fashir, passing through the desert, through Bir Natrum and Wadi Howar, and ending in Egypt. All the oases have always been crossroads of caravan routes converging from the barren desert. In the case of Kharga, this is made particularly evident by the presence of a chain of fortresses that the Romans built to protect the Darb el-Arbain. The forts vary for size and function, some being just small outposts, some guarding large settlements complete with cultivation. Some were installed where earlier settlements already existed, while others were probably founded anew. All of them are made of mud bricks, but some also contain small stone temples with inscribed walls. Described by Herodotus as a road "traversed ... in forty days," the Darb el-Arbain became by his time an important land route facilitating trade between Nubia and Egypt.  
View of Kharga Oasis with the Temple of Hibis in the centre and the desert cliffs at the top
Archaeological sites
The Temple of Hibis is a Saite-era temple founded by Psamtik II which was erected largely by the Persians(Darius the Great and Darius II) during their rule over Egypt ca. 500 BC. It is located about 2 kilometres north of modern Kharga, in a palm-grove. There is a second 1st millennium BC temple in the southern most part of the oasis at Dush. An ancient Christian cemetery at Al-Bagawat also functioned at Kharga Oasis from the 3rd to the 7th century AD. It is one of the earliest and best preserved Christian cemeteries in the ancient world 
Kharga Oasis, Egypt

El Faiyum Oasis Sightseeing Information


When the Mediterranean Sea was a hot dry hollow near the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the late Miocene, Faiyum was a dry hollow, and the Nile flowed past it at the bottom of a canyon (which was 8000 feet deep or more (where Cairo is today). After the Mediterranean reflooded at the end of theMiocene, the Nile canyon became an arm of the sea reaching inland further than Aswan. Over geological time that sea arm gradually filled with silt and became the Nile valley.
Eventually the Nile valley bed silted up high enough to let the Nile in flood overflow into the Faiyum hollow and make a lake in it. The lake is first recorded from about 3000 BC, around the time of Menes (Narmer). However, for the most part it would only be filled with high flood waters. The lake was bordered byneolithic settlements, and the town of Crocodilopolis grew up on the south where the higher ground created a ridge. The Fayoum Oasis. One hour far from Cairo , where you can find one of the biggest Oasis all over the world , 60 KM. X 70 KM. The small City of Al Fayoum very characterized with nature views , Their Old Water Wheel , in total we talk about 7 of them most of them are working to carry the water from one side to the other one. Very typical to take a horse car ridding where you can go inside some of the very much farms over there. Do not to forget to walk in the fruits and vegetables market. A perfect road can drive you from Cairo to Fayoum. it is fantastic and amazing its suitable for romantic and family trips , you can enjoy the view and the weather is perfect their because of the water and green area surrounding it , I’m sure that you will be interested in this area both lovers and the members of a big families as it is a perfect place for school trips so much 
In 2300 BC, the waterway from the Nile to the natural lake was widened and deepened to make a canal which is now known as the Bahr Yussef. This canal fed into the lake. This was meant to serve three purposes: control the flooding of the Nile, regulate the water level of the Nile during dry seasons, and serve the surrounding area with irrigation. There is evidence of ancient Egyptian pharaohs of the twelfth dynasty using the natural lake of Faiyum as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry periods. The immense waterworks undertaken by the ancient Egyptian pharaohs of the twelfth dynastyto transform the lake into a huge water reservoir gave the impression that the lake itself was an artificial excavation, as reported by classic geographers and travellers . The lake was eventually abandoned due to the nearest branch of the Nile dwindling in size from 230 BC. Faiyum was known to the ancient Egyptians as the twenty-first nome of Upper Egypt, Atef-Pehu("Northern Sycamore"). In ancient Egyptian times, its capital was Sh-d-y-t (usually written "Shedyt"), called by the Greeks Crocodilopolis, and refounded by Ptolemy II as Arsinoe. This region has the earliest evidence for farming in Egypt, and was a center of royal pyramid and tomb-building in the Twelfth dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, and again during the rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Faiyum became one of the breadbaskets of the Roman world. For the first three centuries AD, the people of Faiyum and elsewhere in Roman Egypt not only embalmed their dead but also placed a portrait of the deceased over the face of the mummy wrappings, shroud or case. The Egyptians continued their practice of burying their dead, despite the Roman preference forcremation. Preserved by the dry desert environment, these Faiyum portraits make up the richest body of portraiture to have survived from antiquity. They provide us with a window into a remarkable society of peoples of mixed origins —Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Syrians, Libyans and others — that flourished 2,000 years ago in Faiyum. 
The Faiyum portraits were painted on wood in a pigmented wax technique calledencaustic. In the late first millennium AD, the arable area shrank, and settlements around the edge of the basin were abandoned. These sites include some of the best-preserved from the late Roman Empire, notablyKaranis, and from the Byzantine and early Arab Periods, though recent redevelopment has greatly reduced the archaeological features. For late-period Ancient Egyptian names of the Faiyum oasis and places within it, see . "Colonial-type" village names (villages named after towns elsewhere in Egypt and places outside Egypt) show that much land was brought into cultivation in the Faiyum in the Greek and Roman periods. 
  There are, especially in the neighborhood of the lake, many ruins of ancient villages and cities. Mounds north of the city of Faiyum mark the site of Crocodilopolis. In January 2008, Egypt's supreme council of antiquities announced the discovery of an ancient city of farmers dating back to 5200 BC. The site, which probably sat at the edge of Faiyum lake at the time, is still largely buried in the sand, although excavations have revealed walls and houses built of terracotta and limestone, along with foundations of ovens and grain stores.  
Birket Qarun lake
  In the Faiyum oasis is Birket Qarun (Arabic for Lake of Qarun), which abounds in fish, notably bulti, of which considerable quantities are sent to Cairo. In ancient times this lake was much larger, and theancient Greeks and Romans called it Lake Moeris.  
Cities and Towns
Faiyum Coptic: is a city in Middle Egypt and the capital of the Faiyum Governorate. It is located 130 km southwest of Cairo and occupies part of the ancient site of Crocodilopolis. Its name in English is also spelled as Fayum, Fayoum, Al Fayyum or El Faiyūm. was previously officially named Madīnet el Faiyūm (Arabic for The City of Faiyum). The name Faiyum (and its spelling variations) may also refer to the Faiyum Oasis, although it is commonly used by Egyptians today to refer to the city. 
• 1 Etymology 
• 2 Modern city 
• 3 Faiyum mummy portraits 
• 4 Famous Sites 
• 5 Notable people 
• 6 See also 
• 7 References 
• 8 External 
links Etymology pA-y-m (Faiyum) in hieroglyphs The modern name of the city comes from Coptic efiom/peiom (whence the proper name payom), meaning the Sea or the Lake, which in turn comes from late Egyptian pA y-m of the same meaning, a reference to the nearby Lake Moeris. Modern city Faiyum has several large bazaars, mosques,] baths and a much-frequented weekly market. The canal called Bahr Yussef runs through the city, its banks lined with houses. There are two bridges over the river: one of three arches, which carries the main street and bazaar, and one of two arches, over which is built the Qaitbay mosque, that was a gift from his wife to honor the Mamluk Sultan in Fayoum. Mounds north of the city mark the site of Arsinoe, known to the ancient Greeks as Crocodilopolis, where in ancient times the sacred crocodile kept in Lake Moeris was worshipped. The center of the city is on the canal, with the four waterwheels, that are adopted by the governorate of Fayoum as its national symbol, their chariots and bazaars are easy to spot. Faiyum mummy portraits [caption id="attachment_325" align="alignleft" width="150" caption="Portrait of a man, ca. 125-150 AD.. on wood; 37 x 20 cm."][/caption] Faiyum is the source of some famous death masks or mummy portraits painted during the Roman occupation of the area. The Egyptians continued their practice of burying their dead, despite the Roman preference for cremation. While under the control of the Roman Empire, Egyptian death masks were painted on wood in a pigmented wax technique called encaustic—the Faiyum mummy portraits represent this technique. While commonly believed to represent Greek settlers in Egypt, the Faiyum portraits instead reflect the complex synthesis of the predominant Egyptian culture and that of the elite Greek minority in the city. Undisputed remains of early anthropoids date from the late Eocene and early Oligocene, about 34 million years ago, in the Fayyum area, southwest of Cairo, Egypt. One of the earliest fossil primates at Fayum is Catopithecus, dating to around 35 million years ago       
Famous Sites 
• Qasr Qarun, located 44 km from the city 
• Qaitbay Mosque, located in the city, and was built by the wife of the Mamluk Sultan Qaitaby 
• Hanging Mosque, built under the Ottoman Rule over Egypt 
• Lahun Pyramids, located 4 km outside the city 
• Hawara, archeological site located 27 km from the city 
• Wadi Rayan, or Wadi Elrayan, the largest waterfalls in Egypt, located around 50 km from the city Notable people Tefta Tashko-Koço, well known Albanian singer was born in Faiyum, where her family lived at that time. See also 
• Crocodilopolis 
• Faiyum mummy portraits 
• Faiyum Governorate 
• Fayum alphabet 
• Lake Moeris 
• Bahr Yussef 
• Roman Egypt 
• Phiomia (an extinct relative of the elephant, named after Faiyum) 
• Wadi Elrayan References 1. ^ The name of the Fayum province. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 2. ^ Faiyum. Eternal Egypt 3. ^ The Mosque of Qaitbey in the Fayoum of Egypt by Seif Kamel 4. ^ The Temple and the Gods, The Cult of the Crocodile 5. ^ History of Encaustic Art 
• The Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow: An Intrpenoduction 
El-fayoum, Egypt